Analytic Quality Glossary


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Citation reference: Harvey, L., 2004-21, Analytic Quality Glossary, Quality Research International,

This is a dynamic glossary and the author would welcome any e-mail suggestions for additions or amendments. Page updated 18 June, 2021 , © Lee Harvey 2004–2021.


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Bruges Process

core definition

The Bruges Process is the development of European co-operation on vocational education and training.

explanatory context

The Bruges Process in vocational education parallels the Bologna process in higher education. It has now become the Bruges-Copenhagen Process

analytical review

Bologna Process (2003) noted:

The term “Bruges Process” refers to the increased co-operation in European vocational education and training, similar to the Bologna process in higher education. At their conference in Bruges in October 2001, the Directors-General for vocational training initiated a co-operation process in the field of vocational education and training. The European Council affirmed this idea in Barcelona (15 and 16 March 2002). As an initial response, the European Commission invited representatives of 29 European countries (EU member states, future members of the EU and EEA countries) and social partners to a meeting in order to discuss concrete initiatives and measures to improve vocational education and training in Europe. The transparency of qualifications and skills is to be improved through a new, universal instrument, integrating existing tools such as the EUROPASS Training, the European curriculum and the certificate supplement. In addition, strong support was given to a credit transfer system in vocational education and training at the European level, complementing ECTS (European Credit Transfer System) in higher education. These measures are to be implemented within a voluntary co-operation process.... A European framework for vocational education is to be developed by 2010 in order to enable the citizens to move freely between jobs, business sectors and countries….

associated issues

related areas

See also

Bologna process

Bruges-Copenhagen process


Bologna Process, 2003, Glossary, available at, accessed, 20 September, 20012, page not available 31 December 2016.

copyright Lee Harvey 2004–2021

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