Orientation Observation In-depth interviews Document analysis and semiology Conversation and discourse analysis Secondary Data Surveys Experiments Ethics Research outcomes



Social Research Glossary

About Researching the Real World



© Lee Harvey 2012–2018

Page updated 16 November, 2018

Citation reference: Harvey, L., 2012–2018, Researching the Real World, available at
All rights belong to author.


A Guide to Methodology

Researching the Real World


References: H

Habermas, J., 1987, Knowledge and Human Interests, translated by Shapiro, J.J., Cambridge, Polity. Cited in:,

Hadjinicolaou, N., 1978, Art History and Class Struggle, translated by L. Asmal. London, Pluto Press. Excerpts reproduced in Frascina, F and Harrison, C. (Eds.), 1982, Modern Art and Modernism: A critical anthology, pp. 243–8, London, Harper and Row. Cited in: 5.12.7

Hakim, C., 1982, Secondary Analysis in Social Research: Guide to data sources and methods, London, HarperCollins. Cited in: 7.1, 7.3.2

Hall, S.., Lowe, A. and Willis, P. (Eds.)., 1980, Culture, Media, Language (CCCS), London, Hutchinson. Cited in: 5.6.1, 5.10.3,

Hall, S., [1973] 1980, 'Encoding/Decoding' in Hall, S., Hobson, D., Lowe, A. and Willis, P. (Eds.), Culture, Media, Language, pp. 128–38, London, Hutchinson. Original paper, 1973, 'Encoding and Decoding the T.V. message', CCCS mimeo, University of Birmingham. Cited in: 5.11.3

Hall, S. (Ed.), 1997, 'Introduction', in Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices, pp. 1–11, London, Sage. Cited in:

Hall. T, 2004, 'Through a glass darkly: undercover in low-pay Britain and America', Sociology 38(3) pp. 623–30. Cited in: 3.2.2

Hammersley, M. and Atkinson, P., 1983, Ethnography: Principles in Practice, London, Routledge. Cited in: 1.11, CASE STUDY A method for reflexivity, 3.1,, 3.4.1,, CASE STUDY: Distorting the truth,

Hammersley, M. and Atkinson, P., 1995, Ethnography: Principles in practice. London, Routledge (Second Edition). Cited in:, 10.6

Hammersley, M., 1990, Reading Ethnographic Research, London, Longman. Cited in:,,

Hammersley, M., 1990b, 'What's wrong with ethnography? The myth of theoretical description, Sociology, 24(4) pp. 597–615. Cited in: 3.1,

Hammersley, M., 1992, What's Wrong with Ethnography? Methodological explorations. London, Routledge. Cited in:,,,

Hammersley, M., 1995, The Politics of Social Research, London, Sage. Cited in:

Hammersley, M., 2003, ''Analytics' are no substitute for methodology: a response to Speer and Hutchby', Sociology, 37(2), pp. 339–51. Cited in:

Hammersley, M., 2006, 'Are Ethics Committees Ethical?', Qualitative Researcher 2, pp. 4–8. Cited in: 10.4

Hammersley, M., 2008, 'Troubles with triangulation', in Bergman, M.M. (Ed.), Advances in Mixed Methods Research, pp. 22–36, London, Sage, available at, accessed 5 December 2012. Cited in: 1.15.5

Hammond, P.E. (Ed.), 1964, Sociologists at work: essays on the craft of social research, Garden City, New York, Doubleday. Cited in: 1.14.6

Hancock, B., 2002, An Introduction to Qualitative Research, Trent Focus Group. Cited in: 1.8.2,,

Haney C., Banks C. and Zimbardo P., 1973, 'A study of prisoners and guards in a simulated prison', reprinted in Potter et al., 1981, Society and the Social Sciences: An introduction, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul/Open University. Cited in: 9.1.5, 10.2

Hanna, P., 2012, 'Using internet technologies (such as Skype) as a research medium: a research note', Qualitative Research, 12(2), pp. 239–242. Cited in:

Harastzi, M., 1977, A Worker in a Worker's State, Harmondsworth, Penguin. Cited in:,

Haraway, D., 1988, 'Situated knowledges: the science question in feminism and
the privilege of partial perspective', Feminist Studies, 14, pp. 575–99. Cited in: 1.11,

Harding, S. (Ed.), 1987, Feminism and Methodology, Indiana University Press. Cited in:,

Harding, S., 1991, Whose Science? Whose Knowledge? Milton Keynes, Open University Press. Cited in: 1.11, 2.3.1,

Hargittai, E. and Litt, E., 2011, 'The tweet smell of celebrity success: explaining variation in Twitter adoption among a diverse group of young adults', New Media and Society, 13(5), pp. 824–42. Cited in:

Hargreaves, D.H., 1967, Social Relations in a Secondary School, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul. Cited in: 10.6

Hargreaves, D.H., Hester, S.K. and Mellor, F.J., 1975, Deviance in Classrooms, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul. Cited in:

Harker, D., 1980, One for the Money: Politics and popular song. London, Hutchinson. Cited in: 11.2.2

Harper, D., 2000, 'The image in sociology: histories and issues', Journal des anthropologues, 80–81, pp. 143–60. Cited in: 5.12.4,

Harre, R. and Gillett, G., 1994, The Discursive Mind, Newbury Park, CA, Sage. Cited in: 6.5.1

Harrison, S. and Ahmad, W.I.Q, 2000, 'Medical autonomy and the UK state: 1975 to 2025', Sociology, 34, pp. 129–46. Cited in:

Hart, H., 1933, 'Changing social attitudes and interests' in Ogburn, M. (Ed.) 1933, Recent Social Trends in the United States, pp. 328–42, New York, McGraw-Hill. Cited in: 5.6.2

Hartmann, P. and Husband, C., 1974, Racism and the Mass Media: A study of the role of the mass media in the formation of white belief and attitudes in Britain, London, Davis-Poynter. Cited in: 5.11.1

Harvey, L. and Associates, 1997, Student Satisfaction Manual, Buckingham, Society for Research into Higher Education/ Open University Press. Cited in:,

Harvey, L. and Drew, S. with Smith, M., 2006, The First-Year Experience: Review of the research literature, York, Higher Education Academy. Cited in: 1.14.2

Harvey, L. and MacDonald, M., 1993, Doing Sociology: A practical introduction, London, Macmillan. Cited in: 2.4, 3.6.1

Harvey, L., Blackwell, A., Bowes, L. Aston, J., Geall, V., Moon, S., Pratt, B. and Plimmer, L., 1997, A Report of Staff Satisfaction at the University of Central England in Birmingham, Centre for Research into Quality, September. Cited in:,

Harvey, L., Little, M., Turner, D., 1982, 'The perceptions of fans on the British soccer terrace', Crowd Behaviour Project, Paper 2, Birmingham Polytechnic. Cited in:,,

Harvey, L., Moon, S., Geall, V. with Bower, R., 1997, Graduates' Work: Organisational change and students' attributes, Birmingham, CRQ and AGR. Cited in: CASE STUDY Graduate's Work,

Harvey, L., Geall, V. and Moon, S. with Aston, J., Bowes, L. and Blackwell, A., 1998, Work Experience: Expanding opportunities for  undergraduates, Centre for Research into Quality (CRQ), Birmingham. Available here (a substantial document that takes a few seconds to download). Cited in: 11.2.2, 11.4, 11.5

Harvey, L., Wells, J. and Place, A., 1990, Sandwell Skills Audit, Report for the Economic Development Unit of Sandwell MBC. Cited in: CASE STUDY Sandwell Skills Audit,

Harvey, L., 1982, 'Use and abuse of Kuhnian paradigms in the sociology of knowledge', Sociology, 16, pp. 85–101. Cited in:

Harvey, L., 1987, Myths of the Chicago School of Sociology, Aldershot, Avebury. Cited in:,,, 5.2, 5.8.3, CASE STUDY Personal Documents, 11.6.3

Harvey, L., 1987a, 'Factors affecting response rates to mailed questionnaires: a comprehensive review of the literature', Journal of the Market Research Society, 29, 3, pp. 341–53. Cited in:

Harvey, L., 1990, Critical Social Research, London, Unwin Hyman/Routledge. Cited in: 2.4.1,, 5.11.5, 11.2.3 Available at

Harvey, L., 2000, The 2000 Report on the Student Experience at UCE, Birmingham, Centre for Research into Quality, UCE. Cited in:

Harvey, L., 2004, 'The power of accreditation: views of academics', Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 26(2), pp. 207–23. Cited in:

Harvey, L., 2009, Review of Research Literature Focussed on Foundation Degrees, Lichfiled, FDF. Cited in: 5.2

Haskell, M., 1974, From Reverence To Rape: The Treatment of Women in the Movies, New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Cited in: CASE STUDY Women's Pictures

Hatchett, S. and Schuman, H., 1975, 'White respondents and race-of-interviewer effects', Public Opinion Quarterly, 39, pp. 523–8. Cited in:

Hattersley, C.W., 1908, The Baganda at home. With one hundred pictures of life and work in Uganda, London,  The Religious Tract Society. Cited in: 5.12.4

Have, P. ten, 1998, Doing Conversation Analysis: A practical guide, London, Sage. Cited in:, 6.2.5,

Have, P. ten, 2005, 'Review essay. Conversation analysis versus other approaches to discourse. Robin Wooffitt (2005) Conversation Analysis and Discourse Analysis: A Comparative and Critical Introduction', Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 7(2), Article 3, available at, accessed 13 August 2013. Cited in: 6.1, 6.5.4

Have, P. ten, undated. 'Methodological Issues in Conversation Analysis', available at, no longer available, 20 July 2013, based on ten Have, P. , 1990. "Methodological issues in conversation analysis." Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique, 27, pp. 23–51. Cited in:,

Hawkes, N., 2012, 'Scottish crime statistics manipulated?' Straight Statistics, 19 April 2013, 15:24 available at (accessed 18 June 2015). Cited in 7.5.1

Hawkesworth, M., 1989. 'Knowera, knowing, known: feminist theory and claims of truth', Signs, 14(3) pp. 533–57. Cited in:

Hawking, S., 1988, A Brief History of Time, London, Bantam Books. Cited in: 11.4 

Haycock, D. and Smith, A., 2014, 'Sports participation and health during periods of educational transition: a study of 30–35-year-olds in north-west England', Sport,
Education and Society
, 19(2), pp. 168–85. Cited in: 4.2.2

Healey, N., 2013, 'Why do English universities really franchise degrees to 0verseas providers?, Higher Education Quarterly, 67(2), pp. 180–200. Cited in: 4.2.2

Hebdige, D., 1979, Subculture: The meaning of style, London, Methuen. Cited in: 3.2.5

Hearn, J., 1998, The Violences of Men: How men talk about and how agencies respond to men's violence to known women, London, Sage. Cited in:

Heath, C., 1981, 'The opening sequence in doctor-patient interaction', in: Atkinson, P. & Heath, C. (Eds.), Medical Work: Realities and routines, Farnborough, Gower, pp. 71–90. Cited in:

Heck, M., 1980, 'The ideological dimension of media messages' in Hall, S., Hobson, D., Lowe, A. and Willis, P. (Eds.), 1980, Culture, Media, Language, London, Hutchinson, pp. 122–27. Cited in: CSR 5.4

Heller, J.R and Bruyere, P.T., 1946, 'Untreated syphilis in the male Negro, II: mortality during 12 years of observation', Journal of Venereal Disease Information, 27, pp. 34–38. Cited in: 10.2

Henley, P., 1998, 'Film-making and ethnographic research', in Prosser, J. (Ed.), 1989, Image-based Rese: A sourcebook for qualitative researchers, London, Falmer. Cited in:,

Hepburn, A. and Potter, J., 2004, 'Discourse analytic practice', in Seale, C.,
Silverman, D., Gubrium, J. & Gobo, G., (Eds.), Qualitative Research Practice, pp.180–96,
London, Sage. Cited in: 6.5.4

Hepburn, A. and Wiggins, S., (Eds.), 2005, 'Developments in discursive psychology', Discourse & Society (special issue) 16, 594–747. Cited in: 6.5.1, 6.5.4

Hepburn. A., 1997, 'Teachers and secondary school bullying: a postmodern discourse analysis', Discourse and Society, 8, pp. 27–48. Cited in: 6.9.4

Heritage, J., 1998. 'Conversational analysis and institutional talk', in Silverman, D. (Ed.), Qualitative Research: Theory, Method and Practice, pp. 161–82, London, Sage. Cited in: 6.2.4,

Herman, D., 1994, Rights of Passage: Struggles for lesbian and gay legal equality, Toronto, University of Toronto Press. Cited in: CASE STUDY: Hiding opposing views

Hester, S. and Eglin, P., 1992, A Sociology of Crime, London, Routledge. Cited in:,,

Hetherington, K., 2000, New Age Travellers: Vanloads of uproarious humanity, London, Cassell. Cited in: 3.2.5

Hewitt, R., 2005, White Backlash and the Politics of Multiculturalism, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Cited in:

Hick, R., 2015, 'Three perspectives on the mismatch between measures of material poverty', British Journal of Sociology, 66(1), pp. 163–72. Cited in: 7.6.1

Hill Collins, P., 1991, 'Toward an Afrocentric feminist epistemology', in Fornow, M. and Cooke, J. (Eds.), 1991, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. New York, Routledge, Chapman and Hall. Cited in:

Hill, J., 1999, The discourse of inter-agency co-operation: towards a critical understanding of the theory and practice of child protection work. University of Keele, Ph.D Thesis. Cited in:, 10.5

Hindelang, M.J., Hirschi, T. and Weis, J.G., 1981, Measuring Delinquency, Beverly Hills, Sage. Cited in: CASE STUDY: Test-retest,

Hirschi, T. and Stark, R., 1969, 'Hell fire and delinquency', Social Problems, 17(2), pp. 202–13. Cited in: CASE STUDY Religion and Delinquency, 8.2.3, 8.3.5

Hislop, J. and Arber, S., 2003, 'Sleepers wake! The gendered nature of sleep disruption among mid-life women', Sociology, 37(4), pp. 695–711. Cited in: 1.10.1,,

History And Other Thoughts, 2013, 'Marriage A La Mode by William Hogarth', July, available at, accessed 2 October 2018. Cited in: 5.12.7

Hobbs, D., 1988, Doing the Business: Entrepreneurship, the working class and detectives in the East End of London, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Cited in:,, 3.2.5,, 3.4.1, 3.4.3, CASE STUDY: Petty crime, 4.1.2,

Hobbs, D., 1995, Bad Business: Professional crime in modern Britain, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Cited in: CASE STUDY Dance drugs,

Hobbs, D., P. Hadfield, S. Lister and S. Winlow, 2003, Bouncers: Violence and governance in the night-time economy, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Cited in: CASE STUDY Dance drugs,

Hobbs, D. and May, T. (Eds.), 1993, Interpreting the Field: Accounts of ethnography, Oxford,Clarendon Press. Cited in: 1.11

Hobsbawm, E., 1981, 'The contribution of history to social science', International Social Science Journal, 33, pp. 624–40. Cited in: 5.8.3

Hochschild, A., 1983, The Managed Heart, Berkeley, University of California Press. Cited in: 1.15.2

Hodge, R. and Tripp, D., 1986, Children and Television: A semiotic approach, Cambridge, Polity/Blackwell. Cited in: 5.10.3

Hodges, B.D., Kuper, A., Reeves, S., 2008, 'Discourse analysis', British Medical Journal, 337, pp. 570–72. Cited in: 6.10

Holbrook, B. and Jackson, P., 1996, 'Shopping around: focus group research in North London', Area, 28(2), pp. 136–42. Cited in:

Holdaway, S., 1983, Inside the British Police: A force at work, Oxford, Blackwell. More information. Cited in:,,, 3.4.3

Hollway, W., 1989, Subjectivity and Method in Psychology: Gender, meaning and
, London, Sage. Cited in: 1.11

Holmwood, 1995. Cited in:

Holsti, O.R., 1968, 'Content analysis' in Lindzey, G. and Aronson, E. (Eds.), The Handbook of Social Psychology, Volume II (second edition) pp. 596–692), New Delhi, Amerind Publishing. Cited in: 5.6.1

Holt, A., 2010, 'Using the telephone for narrative interviewing: a research note', Qualitative Research, 10(1), pp. 113–21. Cited in:

Homan, R., 1978, 'Interpersonal communications in Pentecostal meetings',
Sociological Review, 26(3), pp. 499–518. Cited in:

Homan, R., 1980, 'The ethics of covert methods', British Journal of Sociology,
31(1), pp. 36–59. Cited in:

Homan, R., 1981, 'Crises in the definition of reality', Sociology, 15, pp. 210–24. Cited in:,

Homan, R., 1991, The Ethics of Social Research, London, Macmillan. Cited in:

Home Office, 1979, Report of the Committee on Obscenity and Film Censorship, Cmnd 7772, London, HMSO. Cited in: CASE STUDY Women's Pictures

Hood, R., 1992, Race and Sentencing, Oxford, Clarendon Press. Cited in:

Hood, S., Mayall, B. and Oliver, S. (Eds.), 1999, Critical Issues in Social Research: Power and prejudice, Buckingham, Open University Press. Cited in: 8.4.1

Hopkins, A. and Dudley-Evans, A., 1988, 'A genre-based investigation of the discussion sections in articles and dissertations', English for Specific Purposes, 7, pp. 113–22. Cited in:

Horowitz, I.L., (Ed.), 1964, The New Sociology. Essays in social science and social theory in honor of C. Wright Mills, London, Oxford University Press. Cited in:

Hruschka, D.J., Schwartz, D., St. John, D.C. et al., 2004, 'Reliability in coding open-ended data: lessons learned from HIV behavioural research', Field Method, 16(3), pp. 307–31. Cited in: 4.5.3

Hughes, L.A., Schaible, L.M. and Gibbs, B.R., 2015, 'Economic dominance, the “American Dream,” and homicide: a cross-national test of institutional anomie theory, Sociological Inquiry, 85(1), pp. 100–28. Cited in: 7.6.1

Huisman, J., de Boer, H., Pimentel Bótas, P.C., 2012, 'Where do we go from here? The future of English higher education', Higher Education Quarterly, 66(4), pp. 341–62. Cited in:

Huizinga, D.and Elliott, D.S., 1986, Reassessing the reliability and validity of self-report delinquency measures', Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 2(4), pp. 293–327. Cited in: CASE STUDY

Humphrey, R., 1993, 'Life stories and social careers: ageing and social life in an ex-mining town', Sociology, 27(1), pp. 166–78. Cited in:

Humphreys, L., 1970, Tearoom Trade, London, Duckworth. Cited in:,, 10.3.3, 10.6

Husserl, E., 1901, Logical Investigations. Vols. One and Two, First edition, 1900–01. Translated from the Second Edition of the German (1913, 1920) by. J. N. Findlay. Ed. with translation corrections and with a new Introduction by Dermot Moran and new Preface by Michael Dummett, London and New York, Routledge, 2001. (Original English translation by J. N. Findlay, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1970.) Cited in: 2.3.1

Husserl, E., 1913, Ideas pertaining to a Pure Phenomenology and to a Phenomenological Philosophy. First book. Newly translated with the full title by Fred Kersten. Dordrecht and Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1983. Also published as Husserl, E., 1963, Ideas: A general introduction to pure phenomenology, translated by. W. R. Boyce Gibson, New York, Collier Books. Cited in: 2.3.1

Husserl, E., 1915, Ideas Pertaining to a Pure Phenomenology and to a Phenomenological Philosophy, Second Book. Translated From the German original unpublished manuscript of 1912, revised 1915, 1928 by Richard Rojcewicz and André Schuwer, Dordrecht and Boston, Kluwer Academic. 1989. Cited in: 2.3.1

Hutchby, I. and R. Woofitt., 1998, Conversation Analysis: Principles, practices and applications, Oxford, Blackwell. Cited in: 6.2.5

Hutchby, I., 1996, Confrontation Talk: Arguments, asymmetries, and power on talk radio. London, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Cited in: 6.2.6, 6.9.4

Hutcheon, P. 2015, 'Scottish government plans to quit publishing crime stats amid claims data is manipulated by police', HeraldScotland, 7 June 2015, available at, accessed 21 June 2015. Cited in: 7.5.1

Hyland, K., 1998, Hedging in Scientific Research Articles, Amsterdam, Benjamins. Cited in: 6.3.3

Hyland, K., 1999, 'Academic attribution: citation and the construction of disciplinary knowledge', Applied Linguistics, 20, pp. 341–67. Cited in: 6.3.3

Hyman, H.H. and Sheatsley, P., 1956, 'Attitudes toward desegregation', Scientific American, 195, pp. 35–39. Cited in: 8.2.7

Hyman, H., 1954, Interviewing in Social Research, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Cited in: 4.5.2

Hymes, D.H, undated, The Ethnography Of Speaking, available at, accessed 22 September 2013, no page numbers. Cited in: 6.7.1

Hyvärinen, M., 2008, 'Analyzing narratives and story-telling' in Alasuutari, P., Bickman, L. and Brannen, J., (Eds.), Social Research Methods, pp.  447–460, London, Sage. Prepublication pdf available at: (accessed 24 March 2018). Cited in:

Høiseth, M. and Keitsch , M., 2015, 'Using phenomenological hermeneutics to gain understanding of stakeholders in healthcare contexts', International Journal of Design 9(3) np, available at accessed 7 June 2017. Cited in: 5.9.1