Orientation Observation In-depth interviews Document analysis and semiology Conversation and discourse analysis Secondary Data Surveys Experiments Ethics Research outcomes



Social Research Glossary

About Researching the Real World



© Lee Harvey 2012–2020

Page updated 29 April, 2020

Citation reference: Harvey, L., 2012–2020, Researching the Real World, available at
All rights belong to author.


A Guide to Methodology

Researching the Real World


References: R

Race K.E., Hotch D.F., Parker T., 1994, 'Rehabilitation program evaluation: use of focus groups to empower clients', Evaluation Review, 18(6), pp. 730-40. Cited in:

Radical Statistics Health Group, 1980, The Unofficial Guide to Health Statistics. London, Radical Statistics. Cited in 7.6.2, 8.4.1

Radway, J., 1984, Reading the Romance: Women, patriarchy, and popular literature. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press. Cited in:

Raghuram, P., Henry, L. and Bornat, J., 2010, 'Difference and distinction? Non-migrant and migrant networks', Sociology, 44(4), pp. 623–41. Cited in: 11.2.2

Ram, M. and Holliday, R., 1993, 'Relative merits: family culture and kinship in small firms', Sociology 27(4), pp. 629–48. Cited in: 3.4.3

Ramazanoglu, C., 1989, 'Improving on sociology: the problems of taking a feminist standpoint', Sociology 23, pp. 427–42. Cited in:,,,

Ramazanoglu, R., 1989b, Feminism and the Contradictions of Oppression. London, Routledge. Cited in

Ramazanoglu, C., 1992, 'On feminist methodology: male reason versus female empowerment', Sociology 26, pp. 207–12. Cited in:,

Ramsden. P., 1998, 'Managing the Effective University', Higher Education Research & Development 17(3), pp. 347–70. Cited in 10.7

Rao, D., Yarowsky, D., Shreevats, A. and Gupta, M., 2010, 'Classifying latent user attributes in Twitter', Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Search and Mining User-generated Contents. New York, ACM Press. Cited in

Ray, J.J., 1987, 'A participant observation study of social class among environmentalists', Journal of Social Psychology, 127, pp. 99–100. Cited in:

Reason, P. (Ed.), 1988, Human Inquiry in Action: Developments in new paradigm research. London, Sage. Cited in 1.8.4

Reboul, A. and Moeschler, J., 1998, Pragmatique du discours. Paris: Armand Colin. Cited in: 6.4.3,

Reed, K., 2000, 'Dealing with differences: researching health beliefs and behaviours of British Asian mothers', Sociological Research Online, 4(4), available at: (accessed 22 November 2019). Cited in

Reissman, C., 2008, Narrative Methods for the Human Sciences. Thousand Oaks CA, Sage. Cited in:

Reisz, M., 2008, 'A hustler in two worlds', Times Higher Education, 21 February 2008, p. 43. Cited in 3.4.1,

Retraction Watch, 2016, 'Researcher accused of fraud, embezzlement acquitted by Italian court', 6 June 2016. Available at (accessed 22 November 2019). Cited in: 10.7

Rhodes, P.J., 1994, 'Race of interviewer affects: a brief comment', Sociology 28(1), pp. 547–58. Cited in:

Riach, P. and Rich, J., 2002, 'Field experiments of discrimination in the market place', The Economic Journal 112(483), pp. 480–518. Cited in 9.2

Ribbens, J., 1989, 'Interviewing—an "unnatural situation"?' Women's Studies International Forum, 12. pp. 579–92. Cited in,

Ribbens McCarthy, J., Edwards, R. and Gillies, V., 2003, Making Families: Moral tales of parenting and step-parenting, Durham, Sociology Press. Cited in, 4.4,,

Rich, B.R., 1977, 'The films of Yvonne Rainer', Chrysalis, 2, pp. 115–127. Cited in: CASE STUDY Women's Pictures

Richardson, L., 1997, Fields of Play: Constructing an academic life. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Cited in 1.11

Richardson, S. and M. McMullan, M., 2007, 'Research ethics in the UK: what can sociology learn from health?', Sociology 41(6), pp. 1115–32. Cited in: 10.4

Ricoeur, P., [1983–1985] 1994–1998, Time and Narrative, 3 volumes., translated by Kathleen Blamey and David Pellauer, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Cited in: 6.8.1

Riessman, C.K., 1987, 'When gender is not enough: women interviewing women', Gender and Society, 1(2) 172–207. Cited in,

Riggs, D.W. and Palasinski, M., 2011, 'Tackling knife violence: implications of young men's discourses of knife carrying in terms of injury prevention', British Medical Journal, Rapid response, 4 May 2011, available at (accessed 22 November 2019). Cited in 6.1.2, CASE STUDY knife carrying,

Riley, D., 1988, 'Am I That Name': Feminism and the category of 'Women' in
. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Cited in: 1.11

Ritchie, J. and Spencer, L., 1994, 'Qualitative data analysis for applied policy research', in Bryman A. and Burgess RG. (Eds.), Analyzing Qualitative Research, pp. 173–194. London, Routledge. Cited in: 4.5.3

Roberts. H. (Ed.), 1981, Doing Feminist Research. London, Routledge, Cited in: 1.14.6

Robson, C., 1993, Real World Research: A resource for social scientists and practioner-researchers. Oxford, Blackwell. Cited in:

Rock, P., 1979, The Making of Symbolic Interactionism. London, Macmillan. Cited in:,

Roethlisberger, F.J. and Dickson W.J., 1939, Management and the Worker, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press. Cited in: 9.1.6,

Roets, G. and Goedgeluck, M., 1999, 'Daisies on the road: tracing the political potential of our postmodernist, feminist approach to life story research',  Qualitative Inquiry, 5, pp.85–112. Cited in: CASE STUDY: Black women and mental health

Rogers, B., 1988, Men Only. London, Pandora. Cited in: 3.4.2

Rogers, C.R., 'The non-directive method as a technique for social research', American Journal of Sociology, 50, pp. 279–83. Cited in

Rogers, E.M., 1995, Diffusion of innovations. New York, Free Press. (First edition, 1962). Cited in: 1.15.4

Rogers, R., Malancharuvil-Berkes, R., Mosley, M,. Hui, D., O'Garro, J.G.. 2005, 'Critical discourse analysis in education: a review of the literature', Review of Educational Research, 75, pp. 365–416. Cited in 6.10

Rood, R., 2011, 'Traditional versus accelerated degree program graduates: a survey of employer preferences', Journal of Continuing Higher Education, 59(3), pp. 122–34. Cited in 8.3.8

Rorty R., 1979, Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Cited in: 1.11

Rorty, R., 1982, Consequences of Pragmatism: Essays, 1972–1980. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Cited in:

Rosaldo, R., 1989, Culture and Truth: The remaking of social analysis. Boston, MA, Beacon. Cited in: 1.11

Rosen, M., 1973, Popcorn Venus: Women, Movies and the American Dream. New York, Coward McCann & Geoghegan. Cited in: CASE STUDY Women's Pictures

Rosenhahn, D.L., 1973,'On being sane in insane places', Science 179(4070), pp. 250–8. Cited in:

Rosler, M., 1981, 'In, around, and afterthoughts (on documentary photography)', in 3 works / critical essays on photography and photographs, Halifax, N.S., Press of the Nova Scotia College of Art & Design,  available at (accessed 22 November 2019). Republished as 'In, around, and afterthoughts: on documentary photography', in Bolton, R. (Ed.), 1990, The Contest of Meaning: Critical histories of photography, pp. 307ff, Cambridge, MIT Press. Cited in:

Ross, E.A., 1920, Social Control. New York, Macmillan. Cited in: CASE STUDY Religion and Delinquency,

Rossner, M. and Yamada, K.M., 2004, 'What's in a picture? The temptation of image manipulation', Journal of Cell Biology, 166(1) p. 11ff. Available at, (accessed 22 November 2019). Cited in:

Rouch, J., 1974, 'The camera and man', Studies in Visual Communication, 1(1), 37–44. Cited in:

Rowland, W.D. and Watkins, B., (Eds.), 1984, Interpreting Television: Current research perspectives. Beverley Hills, Sage. Cited in: 5.11.3

Rowntree, B.S., 1901, Poverty: A study of town life, London, Macmillan . Cited in: CASE STUDY Operationalising Poverty

Ruggiero, V. and N. South, 1995, Eurodrugs: Drug use, markets, and trafficking in Europe. London: UCL Press. Cited in: CASE STUDY Dance drugs,

Ruggiero, V., 1993. 'Brixton, London: a drug culture without a drug economy?', The International Journal of Drug Policy, 4(2), pp. 83–90. Cited in:

Russell, R. and Tyler, M., 2002, 'Thank Heaven for Little Girls: "Girl Heaven" and the Commercial Context of Feminine Childhood', Sociology 36(3), pp. 619–37. More information. Cited in: 1.4.4,