Social Research Glossary


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Citation reference: Harvey, L., 2012-19, Social Research Glossary, Quality Research International,

This is a dynamic glossary and the author would welcome any e-mail suggestions for additions or amendments. Page updated 23 January, 2019 , © Lee Harvey 2012–2019.


A fast-paced novel of conjecture and surprises



core definition

Two factors are orthogonal when they are uncorrelated with each other.

explanatory context


analytical review

Rogers et al. (1984) state:

Linearly independent, orthogonal, and uncorrelated are three terms used to indicate lack of relationship between variables

associated issues

Rogers, J.L., Nicewander, W.A. and Toothaker, L., 1984, 'Linearly independent, orthogonal, and uncorrelated variables', American Statistician, 38(2), available at, accessed 24 December 2016.


related areas

See also

factor analysis

multivariate analysis


copyright Lee Harvey 2012–2019


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